An E-bike controller is without doubt one of the most vital options of Electrical bikes. It really works because the mind of the E-bike and manages each side of the bike. To function the E-bike, we now have to attach all electrical elements like battery, motor, throttle, brake, sensor to the controller. With the assistance of a controller, you may management the ability from the motor, velocity of the bicycle, acceleration of the bike, and many others.
This text represents the information on E-bike Controller. Additionally, right here we are going to focus on the parameters that should be thought of whereas choosing the controller.
What’s an E-bike Controller?
An E-bike controller is a part that connects all electrical elements on the bike collectively. It connects the issues just like the battery, motor, throttle, show, pedal-assist, and numerous sensors. It’s a small pc that acts as the guts of the e-bike. It could actually handle the general functioning of the bike.
Usually, E-bike controllers are available a sealed protecting field. The controllers might be positioned open on a bicycle; nevertheless, some designs are mounted within the body and hidden away.
As a rule, controllers are available a sealed protecting field as a result of they’re uncovered to the weather. Nonetheless, some designs might be mounted contained in the bike’s body and hidden away from sight.
The perform of the E-Bike Controller?
The controller’s foremost perform is to take inputs from all of the E-bike elements like throttle, battery, velocity sensor, show, motor, and many others., and decide what to be returned sign. The completely different controller design has a number of protections which are,
Low-voltage Safety- The controller screens the battery voltage constantly, and it shuts down the motor every time the voltage reaches its cut-off degree. It’s going to defend the battery in opposition to over-discharge.
Over-voltage Safety- The controller additionally screens the cost degree of the battery voltage. It’s going to mechanically shut down when the battery voltage reaches its full cost.
Over-temperature Safety- The controller screens the temperature of the FET (Discipline-effective Transistors). It’s going to shut down the motor every time they grow to be too sizzling.
Over-current Safety- If the motor takes extra present, the controller reduces the present move to the motor. It protects the motor windings in addition to the FET energy transistors.
Brake Safety- The controller gives extra precedence to the braking sign as in comparison with others. As an illustration, in case you apply the brakes and throttle concurrently, it is going to carry out the brake perform.
Kinds of E-bike Controller
Three forms of E-bike controllers can be found, and they’re brushed DC motor controller, brushless DC motor controller, and BLDC motor controller with corridor sensor. Let see these in particulars,
1. Brushed DC motor controllers
Brushed DC motors include everlasting magnets to go along with a connector. The design of those controllers is way easier. It’s only a set of keys that may change the present equipped to the engine.
Brushed controllers are principally used on small electrical autos similar to scooters, electrical bicycles, pedelecs, e-bikes, and different mild EVs.
These controllers are fairly easy to make use of and are principally utilized by DIY hobbyists and fans. The above picture exhibits the set of the brushed motors with controllers.
2. Brushless DC motor controllers
An E-bike, Largely BLDC motor, and BLDC controllers are used. These are the brushless motors with everlasting magnets. They’re dependable and supply increased effectivity. The operation and repair of those controllers are quite simple. Usually, all the pieces on the brushless DC motor controllers is easy, together with their operation and repair.
The above picture exhibits a Brushless motor with a controller. Within the type of construction, it appears just like the brushed controllers. Brushless controllers include three phases managed by way of a set of keys and at the very least two transistors (key/MOSFET) per part. These keys are within the a number of of 6 (like 6, 12, 18, and many others.).
3. BLDC controllers for motors with Corridor Sensors
In brushed DC motors, the brushes contact the commutator and change the present for the motion of the rotor. However there aren’t any brushes within the BLDC motor. Thus, they should be pushed electronically utilizing a motor management system.
A Corridor Impact Sensor is a transducer primarily based on the precept of Corridor Impact. Corridor Impact sensors decide the place of the rotor in accordance with the stator. The stator is the mounted a part of the motor, whereas the rotor is the rotating half. It additionally determines the velocity and numerous different attributes required to run a BLDC motor effectively. These sensors are often known as Rotary encoders that decide the place of the rotor.
Why do we’d like this sensor?
After one rotor motion, we have to flip a sure winding on to push the rotor once more. A small quantity of present runs by way of the Corridor Strip always, so it determines the precise second when we have to push the rotor. As a consequence of this, the subsequent commutation of the rotor might be initiated.
Tips on how to Select E-bike Controller?
The next elements should be thought of to decide on the right E-bike controller,
1. Controller Voltage & Energy
When you’re choosing a controller for a selected motor, verify the controller voltage, and energy. When you purchase a non-programmable controller, make sure that the management voltage needs to be the identical as motor voltage and the controller energy needs to be the identical or barely greater than the motor energy. For instance, if the motor voltage is 24v, then the controller’s voltage needs to be 24v.
In case your controller is programmable, then this energy might be restricted if wanted. The voltage of the controller ought to match the motor in addition to the battery. With this consideration, you’ll scale back the heating of the controller, and its operation will probably be extra secure, which will increase the system’s reliability.
2. Controller Present Ranking
Whereas choosing the controller, make sure that the controller’s present ranking is decrease than the battery’s output present. Usually, the utmost present for a 9-MOSFET controller is 25A, 18A for a 6-MOSFET controller, 40A for a 15-MOSFET controller, and many others.
3. Part and Battery Present
Most newcomers might be confused between the part present and the battery present. These are two various things. The part present is related to the motor. The part present might be a lot better than the battery present.
Let’s contemplate the instance of a welding machine; it takes 10A from the community and provides all 100A on the output. The controller works with the identical precept. It could actually take 30A from the battery and supply round 80A to the motor.
Whereas selecting an E-bike controller for the motor, you’ll want to verify that the part present of the controller and the motor present needs to be matched. If the controller gives extra present than the present motor capability, it is going to warmth up increasingly.
When the motor overheats, the varnish coating on the wires begins to lose its properties. In consequence, it creates a brief circuit, and the motor begins to heat up quickly and harm the windings.
Due to this fact, in regular E-bike controllers, the part present of the controller should match the motor present. Then this configuration is not going to result in the failure of particular person elements.
4. Controller Driving Kind – Sine wave or Sq. wave controller?
Each controllers differ within the part voltage waveform. One generates a sinusoidal waveform, whereas the opposite generates an oblong waveform.
Sine wave controller is standard due to their decrease noise manufacturing. In consequence, it gives better effectivity when going uphill or when carrying a heavy load. Additionally, these controllers present smoother and extra predictable management over normal operations. Nonetheless, sine wave controllers devour way more energy and can price you extra.As well as, they will function with matched motors solely.
Individuals favor the sq. wave controllers as a result of they’re extra inexpensive. They will perform with completely different motors. These controllers present increased effectivity throughout sudden braking or acceleration.
As in comparison with sine wave controllers, they produce excessive noise manufacturing and non-smooth or punched management. Additionally, sq. wave controllers are much less motor environment friendly when going uphill or when carrying a heavy load.
5. Is it a Corridor Sensor/Non-Corridor sensor drive or a Twin-mode controller?
In case your E-bike motor includes a Corridor sensor, the controller is meant to be Corridor-sensor or twin mode. The corridor sensor within the motor senses the motor rotation, and the controller generates the voltage relying on the sensor alerts.
This controller t is extra secure and has decrease energy consumption with extra beginning torque.
Available in the market, there are various kinds of controllers accessible with numerous configurations. Due to this fact, kindly contemplate all of the above parameters if you end up selecting a controller.
Additionally, contemplate the required management capabilities, dimensions of the controller, and many others. I hope this text helps you to decide on the right controller in your E-bike motor.